Millimeter-wave antenna-embedded package/module development
System-level signal integrity analysis
What package improvements are required for dense, high-aggregate bandwidth buses running at data rates beyond 10 Gb/s per channel, and when might optical interconnects on the board be required? We performed a study of distance and speed limits for electrical on-board module-to-module links with an eye to answering these questions. A wide variety of high-performance links has been analyzed from a holistic standpoint, considering I/O circuits and equalization, and including all levels of electrical packaging. Hardware-validated models of advanced organic modules and PCBs allowed us to explore the effect of equalization and modulation formats at different data rates on link performance. Electrical signaling limits were then determined by extrapolating these hardware-correlated models to higher speeds, and these limits were compared to the results of recent work on on-board optical interconnects.